“We used to think agriculture gave rise to cities and later to writing, art, and religion. Now the world’s oldest temple suggests the urge to worship sparked civilization.” – Journalist Charles C. Mann, National Geographic Magazine, June 2011
What we've learned so far about Göbekli Tepe, is what it appears to be, which is that it is possibly the world's oldest sacred temple. We think we know who built it: a collective of hunter-gatherers, who had not yet learned the skills of farming. We also think we know approximately when. But the answers to the questions of how and why and what did it all mean to these Neolithic peoples may not be so easily obtained. In fact, since the 1960s at least in American archaeology, a debate still rages as to how far and by what methods archaeologists should proceed to interpret what they have dug up. How closely should archaeology be tied to anthropology, how much informed speculation about their beliefs should be allowed and by whom? Processual and Post-processual archaeology are two schools of thought within the field that currently define this debate. Tonight we take a closer look at the art, the architecture, and the symbolism from Göbelki Tepe, and what it's lead archaeologist, Klaus Schmidt, thought about what it may have represented to our prehistoric ancestors. We also get closer to an even grander question, did these ancient peoples know of events in earth's past that would blow our modern minds?
- PDF: Göbekli Tepe – the Stone Age Sanctuaries. New results of ongoing excavations with a special focus on sculptures and high reliefs by Klaus Schmidt
- Processual archaeology, formerly the "New Archaeology"
- Anthropology as defined on Wikipedia
- Dr. Robert Schoch talks to Joe Rogan about redating the Sphinx, on Daily Grail
- Explanation of the Dryas ages from Archaeology Wordsmith
- National Geographic documentary on Göbekli Tepe
- Another? Göbekli Tepe documentary from National Geographic on YouTube
- Göbekli Tepe on Wikipedia
- Göbekli Tepe as Armenian "Portasar – The center of the earth and life"
- The Anatolia region of Turkey
- Gobekli Tepe: The World’s First Temple? by Andrew Curry for Smithsonian Magazine
- World's Oldest Temple to Be Restored by Andrew Curry for National Geographic, Jan 2016
- The Birth of Religion by Charles C. Mann for National Geographic Magazine
- Skull Cult at Göbekli Tepe by Jason Urbanus for Archaeology magazine
- Sun and Moon iconography and Göbekli Tepe in another National Geographic documentary
- Poverty Point prehistoric earthworks in northeastern Louisiana
- Sir Mortimer Wheeler, the "Father of Modern Archaeology"
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Episode 109: Göbekli Tepe Part 2. Produced by Scott Philbrook & Forrest Burgess; Audio Editing by Sarah Vorhees Wendel; Ryan McCullough Sound Design; Research Assistance by Tess Pfeifle and the astonishing League of Astonishing Researchers, a.k.a. The Astonishing Research Corps, or "A.R.C." for short. Copyright 2018 Astonishing Legends Productions, LLC. All Rights Reserved.